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Radioactivity was first discovered in 1896 by French scientist Henri Becquerel in phosphorescent materials. In 1898, Marie Curie discovered pitchblend, a uranium ore that is more radiative than uranium itself. The word radioactivity was coined by Marie Curie. In the process of radioactive decay, unstable atomic nuclei lose energy by emitting radiation in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves.

The basic law of radioactive decay is based on the fact that the transition from the decay of a parent nucleus to a daughter nucleus is a purely statistical process. The probability of disintegration (decay) is equal to the fundamental properties of a nucleus and time.

The SI unit of radioactivity is the Beq (Bq), which is defined as a decay rate per second (DPS). Another Curie (CI) can be defined as a 3.7×1010dps decay rate.

Half life can be defined as a period of time in which half of the radioactivity has disappeared (half of the nucleus has disintegrated).

The atoms involved in radioactive decay are called isotopes.

Day 0 activity is the entry of radioactivity on the base date.

There are three common types of radioactive decay: alpha, beta, gamma

The reason is that there are too many protons in the alpha decay of the nucleus, resulting in excessive repulsion. When beta decay occurs, the neutron-to-proton ratio is too large, which will lead to an unstable nucleus. In beta decay, a neutron becomes a proton and an electron. Then electrons are emitted. There are also situations where the neutron-to-proton ratio when emitting positrons is too small. The final type of beta decay is called electron capture and also occurs when the ratio of protons to neutrons in the nucleus is too small. Gamma decay occurs because the nucleus is at too high an energy. The nucleus drops to a lower energy state, in the process emitting high-energy photons called gamma particles

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